Basic Desktop Computer
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Basic Desktop Computer
I have noticed that a lot of people who use computers simply know how to do specific tasks relating to their job and/or immediate needs. If something comes up out of their comfort zone they have to rely on someone else to do the task for them (either a coworker, their kids or a paid professional). This isn’t necessary. You will find basic computer skills you can learn to do for yourself. Let’s start identifying those components.
Personal computerThe personal computer, also known as the PC, is one of the most common types of computer due to its versatility and relatively low price. Laptops are generally very similar, although they may use lower-power or reduced size components.
Most of the people refer or so-called it as “CPU“. (hahaha!) You’re wrong. Change it, please! The computer case is a plastic or metal enclosure that houses most of the components.
A power supply unit (PSU) converts alternating current (AC) electric power to low-voltage DC power for the internal components of the computer. Laptops are capable of running from a built-in battery, normally for hours.
Mainboard or MotherboardThe motherboard is the main component of a computer. It is a large rectangular board with integrated circuitry that connects the other parts of the computer including the CPU, the RAM, the disk drives (CD, DVD, hard disk, or any others) as well as any peripherals connected via the ports or the expansion slots. Components directly attached to or to part of the motherboard include:
- The CPU (Central Processing Unit), which performs most of the calculations which enable a computer to function, and is sometimes referred to as the brain of the computer. It is usually cooled by a heatsink and fan, or water-cooling system. Most newer CPUs include an on-die Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The clock speed of CPUs governs how fast it executes instructions and is measured in GHz; typical values lie between 1 GHz and 5 GHz. Many modern computers have the option to overclock the CPU which enhances performance at the expense of greater thermal output and thus a need for improved cooling.
- The chipset, which includes the northbridge, mediates communication between the CPU and the other components of the system, including the main memory.
- Random-Access Memory (RAM), which stores the code and data that are being actively accessed by the CPU. RAM usually comes on DIMMs in the sizes 2GB, 4GB, and 8GB, but can be much larger.
- Read-Only Memory (ROM), which stores the BIOS that runs when the computer is powered on or otherwise begins execution, a process known as bootstrapping, or “booting” or “booting up.” The BIOS (Basic Input Output System) includes boot firmware and power management firmware. Newer motherboards use Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) instead of BIOS.
- Buses that connect the CPU to various internal components and to expand cards for graphics and sound.
- The CMOS battery, which powers the memory for date and time in the BIOS chip. This battery is generally a watch battery.
- The video card (also known as the graphics card), which processes computer graphics. More powerful graphics cards are better suited to handle strenuous tasks, such as playing intensive video games.
Expansion cardsAn expansion card in computing is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot of a computer motherboard or backplane to add functionality to a computer system via the expansion bus. Expansion cards can be used to obtain or expand on features not offered by the motherboard.
Storage devicesComputer data storage, often called storage or memory, refers to computer components and recording media that retain digital data. Data storage is a core function and fundamental component of computers. The price of solid-state drives (SSD), which store data on flash memory, has dropped a lot in recent years, making them a better choice than ever to add to a computer to make booting up and accessing files faster
To transfer data between computers, a USB flash drive or optical disc may be used. Their usefulness depends on being readable by other systems; the majority of machines have an optical disk drive, and virtually all have a USB port.
Input and output peripheralsInput and output devices are typically housed externally to the main computer chassis. The following are either standard or very common to many computer systems.
InputInput devices allow the user to enter information into the system, or control its operation. Most personal computers have a mouse and keyboard, but laptop systems typically use a touchpad instead of a mouse. Other input devices include webcams, microphones, joysticks, and image scanners.
Output deviceOutput devices display information in a human-readable form. Such devices could include printers, speakers, monitors or a Braille embosser.
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